Funded by Carpe Vitam International, the mission of Project Zero's Innovating with Intelligence project was exploring high-leverage ways to develop students' thinking dispositions. This entails developing students' abilities to think well, their inclination to use those abilities, and their awareness of situations where those abilities are needed. To a large extent, the theoretical and empirical foundation for this program is derived from the research of the completed Patterns of Thinking project.

The project was based partly at Lemshaga Akademi in Sweden and partly at pilot schools in Europe. The instructional approach is referred to broadly as Visible Thinking. It takes an integrated stance toward the teaching of thinking, weaving thinking into the culture of the school and classroom, rather than as a program designed to be implemented. A key premise of the approach is to seek ways to uncover and document students thinking so it can be discussed, reflected upon, and pushed further. Consequently, teachers employ various strategies for documenting the thinking students do.

Our approach takes into account students' conceptual and attitudinal development in key "thinking ideals," such as: truth, fairness, creativity, and understanding. Each of these ideals serves as a leverage point for integration and conceptual development. We introduce developmentally appropriate concepts, attitudes, and practices that teachers expand upon and extend to fit the needs and context of their classes. This work is done primarily through the use of "thinking routines," strategies for thinking that become part of the fabric of the classroom culture


Patricia PalmerPatricia Palmer worked as a researcher and project manager on Innovating with Intelligence, the project that launched the Visible Thinking approach to developing thinking dispositions. With Shari Tishman she is the co-developer of Artful Thinking, a program that integrates arts into the curriculum in order to strengthen student thinking and learning. The program is part of the Visible Thinking initiative at Project Zero – a research-based approach to teaching thinking that links an international network of schools and other learning organizations.
Patricia managed the project that produced the study, The Qualities of Quality: Excellence in Arts Education and How to Achieve It.  She was a researcher on Teaching in the Visual Arts (Studio Thinking Project) study and the Museum of Modern Art’s Visual Thinking Curriculum Project.  She assisted on the Art Works for Schools Curriculum.
Patricia is a visual artist and previously taught in New York City independent and public schools.  She received her Ed.M. from the Arts in Education program at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.  She is currently the Director of Art Education at Montserrat College of Art.