Visible Thinking is a flexible and systematic research-based conceptual framework, which aims to integrate the development of students' thinking with content learning across subject matters.
Visible Thinking began as an initiative to develop a research-based approach to teaching thinking dispositions. The approach emphasized three core practices: thinking routines, the documentation of student thinking, and reflective professional practice. It was originally developed at Lemshaga Akademi in Sweden as part of the Innovating with Intelligence project, and focused on developing students' thinking dispositions in such areas as truth-seeking, understanding, fairness, and imagination. It has since expanded its focus to include an emphasis on thinking through art and the role of cultural forces and has informed the development of other Project Zero Visible Thinking initiatives, including Artful Thinking, and Cultures of Thinking.

Thinking Routines


Patricia PalmerPatricia Palmer worked as a researcher and project manager on Innovating with Intelligence, the project that launched the Visible Thinking approach to developing thinking dispositions. With Shari Tishman she is the co-developer of Artful Thinking, a program that integrates arts into the curriculum in order to strengthen student thinking and learning. The program is part of the Visible Thinking initiative at Project Zero – a research-based approach to teaching thinking that links an international network of schools and other learning organizations.
Patricia managed the project that produced the study, The Qualities of Quality: Excellence in Arts Education and How to Achieve It.  She was a researcher on Teaching in the Visual Arts (Studio Thinking Project) study and the Museum of Modern Art’s Visual Thinking Curriculum Project.  She assisted on the Art Works for Schools Curriculum.
Patricia is a visual artist and previously taught in New York City independent and public schools.  She received her Ed.M. from the Arts in Education program at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.  She is currently the Director of Art Education at Montserrat College of Art.



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